Mirror, Mirror: How’s my Teaching? Using the Sparkes RAISE Model for Reflection

Mirror, mirror on the wall, how fare my classes amongst them all? We all know the value of reflection in learning. It’s a critical must. When coupled with constructive, critical feedback the process of reflection can be very powerful indeed. In my own case I have benefited from mentor feedback and personal reflection which has then resulted in a significant step change in my own teaching practice, e.g. in the case of how to focus on and respond to differentiation.

A colleague of mine, Vicky Sparkes, has recently completed her PGCE. We talked from time to time and swapped hypothetical, metaphorical notes. One thing I liked of hers in particular was something she developed as part of a reflective review for assessment of teaching, which she delivered in April 2015. I asked Vicky and she said I could blog about it, so here it is.

Figure 1 - sparkes 2014

Figure 1: The RAISE Model: Sparkes (2014)

During Vicky’s eighth assessment of teaching (AoT) learners participated in a role-play activity in the form of a simulated multi-agency safeguarding meeting, and in order to reflect and review how things went, Vicky produced the above RAISE model, by synthesising elements of reflective models from Johns (1995), Brookfield (1995) and Rolfe (2001) to produce the above model that she felt was simple enough to implement alongside the day-to-day pressures of teaching, but that crucially prompted and incorporated reflective analysis via theoretical literature, learners and peers. The final stage ‘experimentation’ was intended to be implemented into Vicky’s continued professional development plan and fed into her application for Qualified Teacher and Learning Status.

In particular, the targets Vicky used this model to review were: further stretching and challenging high achieving learners, utilizing learner feedback to evaluate teaching and learning strategies, and, liaising with Learning Support Assistants to consider how best to support learners. The session required learners to participate in a role-play activity which is an activity that Vicky had never utilised before. She stated that she was eager to discover how learners felt about the activity and included a brief learner evaluation at the end of the session to establish their thoughts about the session and to find out how it could be improved.

Vicky was interested in focusing also on a criteria set by The Teachers’ Standards that state that teachers should ‘ reflect systematically on the effectiveness of lessons and approaches to teaching’ (Department of Education, 2013).   Vicky felt that such learner-centred approaches to teaching, learning and assessment serve many purposes including building self-efficacy and to achieve this learners must experience situations which ‘reinforce the individual student’s ability to exercise some control over the learning environment’ (Stage et al. in Weimer, 2013, p:17). Vicky interpreted this as a recommendation in involving learners in evaluation processes which could therefore encourage learners to take responsibility for their own learning and may also promote cooperation in the classroom and improve collaborative learning (Weimer, 2013).

Vicky found that her own model of reflection was more effective within her own practice as it included the aspects from other models that she found to be the most useful. Furthermore, because she utilised the acronym ‘RAISE’, she felt it would be easy to remember, something crucial to reviewing something quickly. As a result Vicky was positive about continuing its use for the foreseeable future.

Vicky further refined her model as follows:

Figure 2 - sparkes 2015

Figure 2: Sparkes’ RAISE Model of Reflective Teaching in Practice (2015)

Personally, I like any tool like the RAISE model, which provides a structure for analysis and reflection. I used Vicky’s model to produce a table with question prompts to further articulate points of reflection in a more structured format. I may well use this as the basis for my weekly teaching log in the final year of my part time PGCE starting in September:

The RAISE Table for Reflection (adapted from Sparkes, 2015):

RAISE Stage Comment
1)    Review Provide a self-reflection of a new experience of critical incident: what happened? Where, when, who, what, how and why? To what extent was progress, success and achievement realised? What questions did the experience or incident raise? Provide context:
2)    Analysis Explain the significance of the experience or incident to teaching, learning and assessment: what issues or problems did the experience or incident highlight? Why was this of relevance? Who to and why? Would it be of wider relevance or just with particular reference in this instance to this class/student? Are there any other stakeholders who should be involved in this? Provide detail:
3)    Interventions Discuss alternative interventions in relation to literature and/or learner/peer suggestions: what would the different learning theorists suggest that might be of relevance? What do different teaching practice tools and methods bring to the table to help? What advice have trusted colleagues given? What do the students concerned have to say on the matter? Outline key ideas and discuss pro’s and con’s, advantages and disadvantages of each:
4)    Solutions Outline a favoured solution and target to trial: out of the alternatives you presented and discussed in stage 3, which idea did you decide to be most appropriate and why?
5)    Experimentation Describe implementation of solution and then go back to stage one: how will you put the idea/solution into practice, who with, when, where, etc. – provide detail and context, aims and objectives:


An extensive bibliography Vicky utilised for this reflective model and her PGCE in general can be found below:

ARMITAGE, Andrew., et al.(2007). Teaching and Training in Post-Compulsory Education. 3rd ed., Berkshire, Open University Press.

ARNONE, Marilyn (2015). Fostering Curiosity in Your Students. [Online]. Last accessed 20 March 2015 at http://www.educationoasis.com/resources/Articles/fosteringcuriosity.htm.

Assessment for Learning (AfL) (2014). Strategies to enhance student self-assessment. [online].  Last accessed 21 March 2014 at http://www.assessmentforlearning.edu.au/professional_learning/student_self-assessment/student_strategies_enhance.html#4

ATL (2013). Health and safety legislation. [online]. Last accessed 8 December 2013 at http://www.atl.org.uk/health-and-safety/legal-framework/health-safety-legislation.asp

AVIS, James, FISHER, Roy and THOMPSON, Ron (2010). Teaching in Lifelong Learning: A Guide to Theory and Practice. Berkshire, Open University Press.

BAILEY, Kira., et al. (2009). The Influence of Video Games on Social, Cognitive, and Affective Information Processing. [online]. Last accessed 8 January 2014 at http://public.psych.iastate.edu/caa/abstracts/2010-2014/11BWA.pdf.

BEETHAM, Helen. and SHARPE, Rhona. (2007). ‘An approach to learning activity design’ in Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age. (eds). Oxon: Routledge.

BIGGE, Morris and SERMIS, Samuel (2004). Learning Theories for Teachers, 6th ed., London, Pearson Education.

BIGGS, John and TANG, Catherine (2007). Teaching for Quality Learning at University. 4th ed. Open University: Berkshire.

Birks, M. (2008). Memoing in qualitative research; Probing data and processes. London: Sage Publications.

BOOTH, Tony, SWANN, Will, MASTERTON, Mary, and POTTS, Patricia (1992). Curricula for Diversity in Education. Oxon, The Open University.

BOSTOCK, John and WOOD, Jane (2012). Teaching 14-19: A Handbook. [online]. Berkshire, Open University Press. Book from My Library last accessed 2 May 2014 at: http://www.myilibrary.com?ID=355616

BRINK-BUDGEN, Roy van den (2010). Advanced Critical Thinking Skills. How to Books Ltd: Oxford.

BROOKFIELD, Stephen. (1995). Models of Reflection. [Online]. Last accessed 28 March 2015 at http://www.brainboxx.co.uk/a3_aspects/pages/ReflectionModels.htm

BUSINESSBALLS (2013). Kolb Learning Styles: David Kolb’s learning styles model and experiential learning theory (ELT). [online]. Last accessed 22 November 2013 at http://www.businessballs.com/kolblearningstyles.html.

BUTT, Graham. (2010).  Making Assessment Matter. [online]. London, continuum International Publishing Group. Last accessed 20 March 2014 at https://www.dawsonera.com/readonline/9781441181800#

CARPER, Barbara. (1978). Models (or Frameworks) of Reflection. [online]. Last accessed 23 December 2014 at http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/nmp/sonet/rlos/placs/critical_reflection/models/

CfBT (2010). Learning to Learn in Further Education: A literature review of effective practice in England and abroad. [Online]. Last accessed 28 March 2015 at http://www.campaign-for-learning.org.uk/cfl/assets/documents/Research/LearningToLearn_v5FINAL.pdf

Chesterfield College (2006). Student Attendance and Absence Reporting Policy and Procedure. Student Services Policies 4.20. Chesterfield College.

Chesterfield College (2013). Quality Improvement/Development Plan 2012/13. Quality Policies L:K3. Chesterfield College.

CLARK, Aldrich. (2005). Learning by Doing: A Comprehensive Guide to Simulations, Computer Games, and Pedagogy in e-Learning and Other Educational Experiences. San Fransisco, Jossey Bass Ltd.

CLARKE, Alan. (2008). E-Learning Skills. 2nd ed., Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.

CLARKE, Alan. (2011). How to use Technology Effectively in Post-Compulsory Education.  Oxon: Routledge.

Confederation of British Industry (2012). Learning to grow: what employers need from education and skills. [Online]. Last accessed 7 May 2015 at: http://www.cbi.org.uk/media/1514978/cbi_education_and_skills_survey_2012.pdf

COTTRELL, Stella. (2011). Critical Thinking Skills: Developing Effective Analysis and Argument. (2nd ed). Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke.

CURZON, L, B. and TUMMONS, Jonathan. (2013). Teachers in Further Education: An Outline of Principles and Practice, 7th ed., London, Bloomsbury Academic.

DCSF (2010) in KNOWLES, Gianna. and LANDER, Vini. (2011). Diversity, Equality and Achievement in Education. London, Sage Publications Ltd.

DCSF (2010) in PEART, Sheine. (2014). Equality and Diversity in Further Education. Northwich, Critical Publishing.

DE FREITAS, Sara. and MAHARG, Paul. (2011) . Digital games and learning. London, Continuum International Publishing Group.

Department for Communities and Local Government (2015). Deprivation Mapper. [Online]. Last accessed 23 April 2015 at: http://opendatacommunities.org/showcase/deprivation

Department for Education and Skills (2002). The plenary. [Online]. Last accessed 23 December 2014 at: http://www.pgce.soton.ac.uk/IT/Teaching/LessonPlanning/plenary.pdf

Department for Education (2013). Teachers’ Standards. [Online]. Last accessed 20 March 2015 at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/301107/Teachers__Standards.pdf

Department for Education (2014). Special educational needs and disability: Research priorities and questions. [Online].  Last accessed 7 May 2015 at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/288089/SEN_Research_Priorities_and_Questions_Final_Draft.pdf

Department for Education and Skills (2007). Diversity and Citizenship in the Curriculum: Research Review. [online]. Last accessed 5 May 2014 at: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/RR819.pdf

Department for Education and Skills (2007). Raising Expectations: staying in education and training post-16. London: The Stationery Office.

DFRS (2014). XVRsimulation. [online]. Last accessed 2 January 2015 at https://www.youtube.com/user/XVRatESemble.

DIXON, Liz et al. (2010). Practical Teaching. In (eds.) Teaching in Lifelong Learning: A Guide to Theory and Practice. Maidenhead, Open University Press.

DRIFE, James. (2004). Teenage pregnancy: a problem or what?. [online]. Last accessed 3 May 2014 at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.lcproxy.shu.ac.uk/doi/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2004.00187.x/pdf

EASTWOOD, Linda. et al. (2009). A Toolkit for Creative Teaching in Post Compulsory Education. London, Open University Press. Last accessed 4 May 2014 at : https://www.dawsonera.com/readonline/9780335239436#

Edexel (2014). Public Services (Uniformed) BTEC Level 3 Extended Diploma. [online]. Last accessed 5 January 2015 at http://www.bournville.ac.uk/courses/btec-level-3-extended-diploma-in-public-services-uniformed/

Edexel (2014). Unit 1: Government, Policies and the Public Services. [online]. Last accessed 5 January 2015 at https://www.edexcel.com/migrationdocuments/BTEC%20Nationals%20from%202010/Unit_1_Government_Policies_and_the_Public_Services.pdf

Edexel (2014). Unit 14: Responding to Emergency Incidents. [Online]. Last accessed 5 January 2015 at https://www.edexcel.com/migrationdocuments/BTEC%20Nationals%20from%202010/Unit_14_Responding_to_Emergency_Service_Incidents.pdf

Edexel (2014). Unit 22: Aspects of the Legal System and the Law Making Process. [online]. Last accessed 5 January 2015 at https://www.edexcel.com/migrationdocuments/BTEC%20Nationals%20from%202010/Unit_22_Aspects_of_the_Legal_System_and_the_Law_Making_Process.pdf

Edexel (2014). Unit 33: Volunteering in Public Services. [online]. Last accessed 5 January 2015 at https://www.edexcel.com/migrationdocuments/BTEC%20Nationals%20from%202010/Unit_33_Volunteering_in_Public_Services.pdf

Edexel (2014). Unit 9: Outdoor and Adventurous Expeditions. [online]. Last accessed 5 January 2015 at https://www.edexcel.com/migrationdocuments/BTEC%20Nationals%20from%202010/Unit_9_Outdoor_and_Adventurous_Expeditions.pdf

Education and Training Foundation (2014), Initial Guidance for users of the Professional Standards for Teachers and Trainers in Education and Training – England. [Online]. Last accessed 14 April at http://www.et-foundation.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/ETF-Prof-Standards-Guidance-v2-2.pdf

FARADAY, Sally., OVERTON, Carole. and COOPER, Sarah. (2011).   Effective teaching and learning in vocational education. [Online]. Last accessed 28 March 2015 at http://www.skillsdevelopment.org/pdf/Effective_teaching_and_learning_in_VE_report.pdf

FOOK, Jan. and GARDINER, Fiona. (2007). Practicing Critical Reflection: A Resource Handbook. Open University: Berkshire.

FOX, Dennis (1983). Personal Theories of Teaching. [Online]. Last accessed 7 January 2015 at http://www.iei.liu.se/pie/proviking/kursmaterial/1.180648/2fox.pdf

FURTHER EDUCATION NATIONAL TRAINING ORGANISATION (2001), Standards for teaching and supporting learning.  [Online]. Last accessed 8 Decemeber 2013 at http://www.third-conditional.net/fento.pdf.

GRAVELLS, Ann. and SIMPSON, Susan. (2008). Planning and enabling learning in the lifelong learning sector. [online]. Kent, Learning Matters Ltd. Book from Dawsonera last accessed 1 May 2014 at: https://www.dawsonera.com/readonline/9781844456024#

GRIFFITH, Andy., and BURNS, Mark. (2012). Outstanding Teaching: Engaging Learners. Carmarthen: Crown House Publishing.

Guardian (2011). The ethnic population of England and Wales broken down by local authority. [online]. Last accessed 3 May 2014 at: http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2011/may/18/ethnic-population-england-wales

Guardian (2013). UK anti-Muslim hate crime soars, police figures show. [online]. Last accessed 3 May 2014 at: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2013/dec/27/uk-anti-muslim-hate-crime-soars

Guardian (2014). 52% of gamers are women – but the industry doesn’t know it. [Online]. Last accessed 04 December 2014 at http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/sep/18/52-percent-people-playing-games-women-industry-doesnt-know.

Guardian (2014). Disengaged and overwhelmed: why do second year students underperform? [Online]. Last accessed 20 March 2015 at: http://www.theguardian.com/higher-education-network/2015/feb/16/disengaged-and-overwhelmed-why-do-second-year-students-underperform

HARPIN, V, A. (2005). The effect of ADHD on the life of an individual, their family, and community from preschool to adult life. [online]. Last accessed 3 May 2014 at: http://adc.bmj.com/content/90/suppl_1/i2.full

Honey & Mumford 1984 in Palgrave 2008 p: 13 in CLARKE, Alan. (2008). E-Learning Skills: ‘Benefits of E-Learning’ 2nd ed., Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.

HUDDLESTON, Prue and UNWIN, Lorna (2013). Teaching and Learning in Further Education: Diversity and Change, 4th ed. Oxon, Routledge.

JAMES COOK UNIVERSITY (JCU) WORKPLACE EDUCATORS RESOURCE PACKAGE (2013). Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic (VAK) learning style model. [online]. Last accessed 22 November 2013 at http://www.jcu.edu.au/wiledpack/modules/fsl/JCU_090460.html.

JISC (2007) in CLARKE, Alan (2011). How to use Technology Effectively in Post-Compulsory Education.  Oxon, Routledge.

JISC (2009). Effective Practice in a Digital Age. JISC Innovation Group/Bristol

JISC (2014). Planning and Evaluating Effective Practice with e-Learning. [Online]. Last accessed 5 June 2014 at: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:wvCw2HBA6c0J:www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_documents/Learning%2520activity%2520design.doc+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=uk

JOHNS, Chris (1995). About Johns’ model of structured reflection. [Online]. Last accessed 23 December 2014 at: https://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/upgrade/study-skills/reflective-johns.html

JOHN, Peter. and WHEELER, Steve. (2008). The Digital Classroom: Harnessing Technology for the Future. Oxon, Routledge.

Joint Council for Qualifications (2014). General Regulations for Approved Centres 2013-2014. [online]. Last accessed 5 June 2014 at http://www.jcq.org.uk/exams-office/general-regulations/general-regulations-for-approved-centres-2013-2014

KNOWLES, Gianna. and LANDER, Vini. (2011). Diversity, Equality and Achievement in Education. London, Sage Publications Ltd.

LANG, James. (2008). ‘Guest Speakers’ in The Chronicle of Higher Education: C2-C3. http://search.proquest.com.lcproxy.shu.ac.uk/docview/214654981/fulltext/B286338CB7AE4673PQ/1?accountid=13827

Learning and Skills Council (2002). Successful Strategies in Further Education (FE) Colleges for Raising Students’ Attendance and Punctuality Rates. Last accessed 23 April 2015 at: http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/10278/

Learning and Skills Development Agency (2001). Improving student retention and achievement; What do we know and what do we need to find out. London/Learning and Skills Development Agency.

LEASK, Marilyn. and PACHLER, Norbert. (2014). Learning to Teach Using ICT in the Secondary School: A companion to school experience. 3rd eds. London, Routledge.

Lifelong Learning UK (2014). New overarching professional standards for teachers, tutors and trainers in the lifelong learning sector. London, Lifelong Learning UK.

LIGHT, Greg et al.(2009). Learning and Teaching in higher Education – The Reflective Professional (2nd ed). London, Sage.

MIDDENDORF, Joan. and OSBORN, Elizabeth. (2012), Learning Student Names. [Online]. Last accessed 15 January 2014 at: http://citl.indiana.edu/files/pdf/Lecture_Learning_Names.pdf

National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA) (2010). Your guide to becoming a police constable. [online]. Last accessed 25 March 2014 at http://www.policecouldyou.co.uk/documents/pc-guide-brochure2835.pdf?view=Binary

New Teacher (2014) Introducing pace and purpose into your lessons. [online]. Last accessed 21 March 2014 at http://newteachers.tes.co.uk/news/introducing-pace-and-purpose-your-lessons/45867

Ofsted (2013). Improving attendance and punctuality; Strategies, approaches and lessons learned from London colleges: an AoC/Ofsted action learning project. London: Ofsted.

Ofsted (2013). Outstanding individual target setting: Highbury College. [Online]. Last accessed 23 December 2014 at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/392097/Highbury_20College_20-_20good_20practice_20example.pdf

PACHLER, Norbert. and DALY, Caroline. (2011). Key Issues in e-Learning: Research and Practice. London, Continuum International Publishing Group.

PAYNE, Brian. (2003). ‘Bringing the field into the criminal justice classroom: Field trips, ride-alongs, and guest speakers’ in Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 14.2: 327-344. http://search.proquest.com.lcproxy.shu.ac.uk/docview/223367445?pq-origsite=summon

PEART, Sheine. (2014). Equality and Diversity in Further Education. Northwich, Critical Publishing.

POLLARD, Andrew. (2008). Reflective Teaching, 3rd ed., London, Continuum.

Pregnancy Independent Advisory Group (2010). Teenage pregnancy: Past successes – future challenges. [online]. Last accessed 3 May 2014 at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/181078/TPIAG-FINAL-REPORT.pdf

RABIEE, F. (2004). Focus-group interview and data analysis. [Online]. Last accessed 23 April 2015 at: http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FPNS%2FPNS63_04%2FS0029665104000874a.pdf&code=9209c317ae019016ff41ae708a1ef5e1

RACE, Phil. and PICKFORD, Ruth. (2007). Making Teaching Work: ‘Teaching Smarter’ in Post-Compulsory Education. London, Sage Publications.

RACE, Richard. (2008). Multiculturalism and Education. London, Continuum International Publishing Group.

REECE, Ian. and WALKER, Stephen. (2007). Teaching, training and learning: A practical guide, 6th ed., Tyne and Wear, Business Education Publishers Limited.

REIS, R. (2015). Stanford Center for Teaching and Learning. [Online]. Last accessed 5 March 2015 at: http://cgi.stanford.edu/~dept-ctl/tomprof/posting.php?ID=1013

RICHMAN, Scott., PERMUTH, Steve. and RICHMAN, Paula. (2013). Successful Teaching : Practical Ideas and Enabling Questions. Plymouth, R&L Education. Last accessed 21 March 2014 at http://lib.myilibrary.com.lcproxy.shu.ac.uk/Open.aspx?id=472127

ROFFEY-BARENSTEN, Jodi. and MALTHOUSE, Richard. (2009).  Reflective practice in the lifelong learning sector. [online]. Exeter, Learning Matters Ltd. Last accessed 20 March 2014 at https://www.dawsonera.com/readonline/9780857253347#

ROGERS, Bill. (2006). Cracking the Hard Class. London, Sage.

SCALES, Peter. (2008). Teaching in the Lifelong Learning Sector. 1st Ed., Berkshire, Open University Press.

SHARPE, Rhona., BEETHAM, Helen. and DE FREITAS, Sara (2010), Rethinking Learning for a Digital Age: How learners are shaping their own experiences. Eds. Oxon, Routledge.

SHEFFIELD HALLAM UNIVERSITY (2013). CertEd Post-16 and Further Education: Entry Requirements. [online]. Last accessed 3 December 2013 at http://www.shu.ac.uk/prospectus/course/815/entry.

SKELTON, Christine., FRANCIS, Becky. and SMULYAN, Lisa. (2006). The SAGE Handbook of Gender and Education. London, SAGE Publications Limited.

STAGE, et al. in WEIMER, Maryellen. (2013). Learner-Centred Teaching: Five Key Changes to Practice. Jossey-Bass:CA.

STAKE, R. E. (2005). Qualitative case studies. In: Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y. The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed.). CA: Sage.

STARBUCK, David. (2006). Creative Teaching: Getting it Right. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.

STENHOUSE, Lawrence. (1975) in MARSH, Colin (2009). Key Concepts for Understanding Curriculum. Fourth Edition. Abingdon, Routledge.

TAYLOR, Charlie (2012). Improving attendance at school. [Online]. Last accessed 21 April 2015 at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/180772/DFE-00036-2012_improving_attendance_at_school.pdf

VIZARD, David. (2012). ‘Using the Whole team’, in How to Manage Behaviour in Further Education. Sage/London.

WARD, Helen. (2012). Is it time to ditch the rule of three? [Online]. Last accessed 23 December 2014 at: https://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=6225773

WATKINS, Chris. (2005). Classrooms as Learning Communities: What’s in it for schools? Oxon, Routledge.

WEIMER, Maryellen. (2013). Learner-Centred Teaching: Five Key Changes to Practice. Jossey-Bass:CA.

WENGER, Etienne. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

WILSON, Linda. (2012). Practical Teaching; A Guide to Assessment and Quality Assurance. Hampshire, Cengage learning EMEA.

XVR (2014). Virtual Reality training software for safety and security.   [Online]. Last accessed 14 December 2014 at http://www.xvrsim.com/?t=gb&red=1#popup/0/


1 thought on “Mirror, Mirror: How’s my Teaching? Using the Sparkes RAISE Model for Reflection

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s